GD&T FUNDAMENTAL RULES PER ANSI Y14.5
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-generated three-dimensional solid models that explicitly describes nominal (danh nghĩa) geometry and its allowable variation (sự thay đổi, sự khác nhau).
W H A T A R E R U L E S O F G D & T ?
To help conform to this standard of measurement, a system for defining tolerances known as Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) was developed. Below are the rules of GD&T.
N O N R I G I D P A R T S
A nonrigid part is a part that can have different dimensions while restrained (kiềm chế) in assembly than while relaxed (thanh thản) in its "free state." Rubber, plastic, or thin-wall parts may be obviously nonrigid. Other parts might reveal themselves as nonrigid only after assembly or functioning forces are applied. That's why the exemption of "nonrigid parts" from Fundamental Rule is meaningless. Instead, the rule must be interpreted as applying to all parts and meaning. "Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions and tolerances apply in it free state condition." Thus, a designer must take extra care to assure that a suspected nonrigid part will have proper dimensions while assembled and functioning. To do so, one or more tolerances may be designated to apply while the part's assembly and/or functioning.
N O N R I G I D P A R T S — S P E C I F Y I N G R E S T R A I N T
A nonrigid part might conform (thích nghi với) to all tolerances only in the free state, only in the restrained state, in both states, or in neither state. Where a part, such as a rubber grommet, may or may not need the help of restraint for conformance (sự phù hợp, sự thích hợp), the designer may specify optional restraint. This allows all samples to be inspected in their free states. Parts that pass are accepted. Those that fail may be reinspected — this time, while restrained. Where there is a risk that restraint could introduce unacceptable distortion, the designer should specify mandatory (có tính cách bắt buộc) restraint instead.
Restraint may be specified by a note such as UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, ALL DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES MAY (or SHALL) APPLY IN A RESTRAINED CONDITION. Alternatively, the note may be directed only to certain dimensions with flags and modified accordingly (phù hợp với điều đã được nhắc đến hoặc biết đến). The note shall always include (or reference a document that includes) detailed instructions for restraining the part. A typical note (example: THIS TOLERANCE APPLIES WHEN DATUM FEATURE A IS MOUNTED AGAINST A FLAT SURFACE USING FOUR .250-28 BOLTS TORQUED TO 10 FOOT POUNDS.) identifies one or two functional datum features (themselves nonrigid) to be clamped into some type of gage or fixture. The note should spell out any specific clamps, fasteners, torques, and other forces deemed necessay to simulate expected assembly conditions.