PREPARING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
What is Standard Operating Procedure? A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a set of written instructions that document a routine or repetitive activity followed by an organization. The development and use of SOPs are an integral part of a successful quality system as it provides individuals with the information to perform a job properly, and facilitates (làm cho dễ dàng; làm cho thuận tiện) consistency (trước sau như một) in the quality and integrity (toàn vẹn, toàn bộ) of a product or end-result. The term “SOP” may not always be appropriate and terms such as protocols (bản dự thảo đầu tiên hoặc nguyên gốc), instructions, worksheets, and laboratory operating procedures may also be used. For this document “SOP” will be used.
SOPs describe both technical and fundamental programmatic operational elements of an organization that would be managed under
BIN: Binary —» Binary describes a numbering scheme (sự sắp xếp theo hệ thống; sự phối hợp) in which there are only two possible values for each digit: 0 and 1. The term also refers to any digital encoding (ghi thành mật mã, mã hoá) /decoding (giải mã) system in which there are exactly two possible states. In digital data memory, storage, processing, and communications, the 0 and 1 values are sometimes called "low" and "high," respectively. A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data on a computer; each bit has a single value of either 1 or 0. Executable (ready-to-run) programs are often identified as binary files and given a file name extension of ".bin.” Programmers often call executable files binaries.
Binary numbers look strange when they are written out directly. This is because the digits' weight increases by powers of 2, rather than by powers of 10. In a digital numeral, the digit furthest to the right is the "ones" digit; the next digit to the left is the "twos" digit; next comes the "fours" digit, then the "eights" digit, then the "16s" digit, then the "32s" digit, and so on. The decimal equivalent of a binary number can be found by summing (tổng số, cộng lại) all the digits. For example, the binary 10101 is equivalent to the decimal 1 + 4 + 16 = 21:
The numbers from decimal 0 through 15 in decimal, binary, octal (thuộc hệ thống lấy số 8 làm cơ sở) , and hexadecimal (thuộc hệ thống số có cơ sở là 16) form are listed right below.
CHAR: Character —» In information technology, a character is a printable symbol having phonetic (ngữ âm) or pictographic (lối chữ hình vẽ, chữ tượng hình) meaning and usually forming part of a word of text, depicting (mô tả, miêu tả) a numeral, or expressing (nói rõ, như hệt) grammatical (thuộc về các quy tắc ngữ pháp) punctuation (sự chấm câu; phép chấm câu; nghệ thuật chấm câu; hệ thống chấm câu). In information technology today, a character is generally one of a limited number of symbols, including the letters of a particular (nói cụ thể, nói riêng) language's alphabet, the numerals in the decimal number system, and certain (chắc chắn, đích xác) special symbols such as the ampersand (&) and "atsign" (@). Several standards of computer encoding have been developed for characters. The most commonly used in personal computers is ASCII. IBM mainframe systems use EBCDIC. A new standard, Unicode, is supported by later Windows systems.
A distinction (nét đặc biệt; nét độc đáo) is sometimes made between a character and a glyph. In this distinction, a character can be distinguished (biểu lộ những phẩm chất đặc sắc) from other characters in terms of meaning and sound and a glyph is the graphic image used to portray (miêu tả) the character. In different implementations (sự bổ sung), a character can have more than one possible glyph, and a glyph can represent more than one possible character.
DAR: Direct Access Restore —» Direct Action Required —» Required action that seeks to achieve an end directly and by the most immediately effective means. DAR is a command-line archiving (lưu trữ) tool and a replacement for tar (TARcompressed file archive). It features: • Support for slices, archives split over multiple files of a particular size • Option of deleting files from the system which are removed in the archive • Incremental backup, and Decremental backup.
EBCDIC: Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code —» EBCDIC is a binary code for alphabetic and numeric characters that IBM developed for its larger operating systems. It is the code for text files that is used in IBM's OS/390 operating system for its S/390 servers and that thousands of corporations use for their legacy (di sản) applications and databases (cơ sở dữ liệu). In an EBCDIC file, each alphabetic or numeric character is represented with an 8-bit binary number (a string of eight 0's or 1's). 256 possible characters (letters of the alphabet, numerals, and special characters) are defined.
GLYPH: In information technology, a glyph (pronounced GLIHF ; from a Greek word meaning carving) is a graphic symbol that provides the appearance or form for a character . A glyph (nét chạm) can be an alphabetic or numeric font or some other symbol that pictures an encoded character.The following is from a document written as background for the Unicode character set standard. An ideal characterization (sự mô tả tính cách của ai/cái gì) of characters and glyphs and their relationship may be stated as follows: • A character conveys (truyền, truyền đạt, chuyển) distinctions in meaning or sounds. A character has no intrinsic (bản chất, thực chất; bên trong) appearance. • A glyph conveys distinctions in form. A glyph has no intrinsic meaning. • One or more characters may be depicted by one or more glyph representations (instances of an abstract glyph) in a possibly context dependent fashion. In the Unicode standard, a character is stated to be an abstract (lý thuyết, không thực tế) entity (thực thể) and not a glyph (some visual representation of a character).
OCR: Optical Character Recognition —» OCR is the recognition of printed or written text characters by a computer. This involves photoscanning of the text character-by-character, analysis of the scanned-in image, and then translation of the character image into character codes, such as ASCII, commonly used in data processing.
TXT: Text —» In information technology, text is a human-readable sequence (tiếp nối nhau, chuỗi) of characters and the words they form that can be encoded into computer-readable formats such as ASCII. Text is usually distinguished from non-character encoded data, such as graphic images in the form of bitmaps (an array of binary data representing a bitmapped image or display; also: a file containing such data) and program code, which is sometimes referred to as being in "binary" (but is actually in its own computer-readable format).
UNICODE: Unicode is an entirely new idea in setting up binary codes for text or script ((chữ viết (đối với chữ in); chữ thảo in, chữ đánh máy (giống (như) chữ viết tay)) characters. Officially called the Unicode Worldwide Character Standard, it is a system for "the interchange, processing, and display of the written texts of the diverse (thay đổi khác nhau) languages of the modern world." It also supports many classical and historical texts in a number of languages. Currently, the Unicode standard contains 34,168 distinct coded characters derived (xuất phát từ, chuyển hoá từ, bắt nguồn từ) from 24 supported language scripts. These characters cover the principal written languages of the world.
P R O G R A M M I N G A N D C O M P U T E R S C I E N C E T E R M S
Programming and Computer Science Terms: A word that has a specific meaning within a specific field of expertise. Technical terms are an essential part of all technical and scientific writing. Each field and specialty typically uses a vocabulary that relays a variety of specialized concepts by means of technical language. These special terms convey concentrated meanings that have been built up over significant periods of study of a field. When writing technical (scientific, medical, legal, etc.) articles, it is usually the case that a number of technical terms or terms of art and jargon specific to the subject matter will be presented. Here is a list of programming and computer science terms from LabAutopedia.