Engineering Technical Solutions


ALUMINUM & HOW IMPORTANCE OF ALUMINUM?


MATERIALS of ENGINEERING refers to selecting the correct materials for the application in which the engineered part is being used. Engineers will select a particular grade of material based on its properties such as malleability (tính dễ dát mỏng, tính dễ uốn) or tensile (căng dãn ra, có thể căng dãn ra) strength. Composites comprise (gồm có, bao gồm) two materials, such as a metallic mesh and a resin, the combination of which also depends on the properties required. Materials from which the item is to be manufactured are noted on the engineering drawing using standard material and grade codes. It is important that manufacturers do not interchange (sự trao đổi lẫn nhau, sự thay thế lẫn nhau) materials because the switch may make the products susceptible (dễ bị, dễ bị ảnh hưởng) to failures.

MATERIALS are generally split into four main groups: metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites. Engineering materials are metals and plastics. Metals are materials like Aluminum, Cast iron, Steels, Nickel, Silver, Zinc Alloy, Brass and Copper. Plastics are materials like Nylon, Acrylic, Polythene, Polypropylene, Polycarbonate, Bakelite, Melamine, Expoxy resin, Pvc and uPVC. Wood is used to make patterns and models. Smart materials and composites such as carbon fibre are also important engineering materials.

Aluminum is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust, where it is the third most abundant element and also the most abundant metal. Some typical applications of wrought alloys are:

1050- 1050-H12, 1050-H14, 1050-H16 and 1050-H18: 1050 aluminium alloy is an aluminium-based alloy in the wrought family (1000 or 1xxx series). As a wrought alloy, it is not used in castings. Instead, it is usually formed by extrusion or rolling. Having high electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, and workability. It is commonly used in the electrical and chemical chemical process plant equipment, pyrotechnic powder, lamp reflectors, food industry containers, cable sheathing, architectural flashings, chemical equipment, and railroad tank cars. 1050 alloy is also sometimes used for the manufacture of heat sinks, since it has a higher thermal conductivity than other alloys. It has low mechanical strength compared to more significantly alloyed metals. It can be strengthened by cold working, but not by heat treatment.


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1060- 1060-H12, 1060-H14, 1060-H16 and 1060-H18: Alloy 1060 is a relatively low strength, high purity alloy with a 99.6% minimum aluminum content. It is noted for its excellent welding characteristics and formability along with good corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity and may be welded by standard commercial methods. It is used in traffic signs, billboards, chemical equipment, sheet processing, deep drawing and spinning concave vessels, heat exchangers, kitchen utensils, chemical equipment, and railroad tank car.

1100- 1050-H12, 1100-H14, 1100-H16 and 1100-H18: Alloy 1100 is a pure alloy with excellent forming characteristics, and excellent machinability especially when machined in hard temper. Alloy 1100 is among the softest aluminum alloy, and it is not to be used for high-strength or high-pressure applications. It is widely used sheet-metal work, spun hollowware, fin stock, heat exchanger fins, dials and name plates, decorative parts, giftware, cooking utensils, rivets and reflectors.

1145- 1145-H12, 1145-H14, 1145-H16 and 1145-H18: Alloy 1145 is a nearly pure alloy with minor impurities like copper, manganese, magnesium, zinc, titanium, silicon and iron. With a minimum aluminum content of 99.45%, aluminum 1145 is normally used in foil, fin stock. capacitor, food packaging, printing foil, hairdressing, electrical, battery and household use, etc.

1199- 1199-H12, 1199-H14, 1199-H16 and 1199-H18: Alloy 1199 is a 99.99% pure alloy with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. This alloy is widely used in fields such as aerospace, marine, automobile, and engineering.

1350- 1350-H12, 1350-H14, 1350-H16, 1350-H18, 1350-H111, 1350-H24 and 1350-H26: Alloy 1350 is a 99.995% pure alloy with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. This alloy is widely used for electrical conductors, disk drive coils, a development of tethers with heat-resistant enamels and high-strength bond coatings. 1350-H111 temper exhibits the highest electrical conductivity of all extruded aluminum.

2011- 2011-T3, 2011-T4, 2011-T451, and 2011-T8: Screw-machine products.

2014- 2014-T3, 2014-T4, 2014-T451, and 2014-T8: Truck frames, aircraft structures.

2024- 2024-T3, 2024-T4, 2024-T351, 2024-T3510, 2024-T3511, 2024-T361, 2024-T6, 2024-T861, 2024-T81, 2024-T851, 2024-T8510, 2024-T8511, and 2014-T72: Truck wheels, screw-machine products, aircraft structures.

2036-T4 : Auto-body panel sheet.

2024-T851: Military supersonic aircraft.

2218-T61, 2218-T72: Jet engine impellers and rings.

2219- 2219-T31, 2219-T351, 2219-T3510, 2219-T3511, 2219-T37, 2219-T81, 2219-T851, 2219-T8510, 2219-T8511, and 2219-T87: Structural use at high temperatures (to 600°F/315°C) high strength weldments.

2618-T61: Aircraft engines.

3003- 3003-H12, 3003-H14, 3003-H16, 3003-H18, 3003-H25: The most widely used of all aluminum alloys. Its major alloying element is manganese which allows for the formation of grains that absorb impurities, prevent corrosion, and strength (20% stronger than the 1100 grade). It has excellent formability and workability making it ideal for applications such as cooking utensils, chemical equipment, pressure vessels, sheet-metal work, builder's hardware, storage tanks, heat exchangers, roofing and siding.

3004- 3004-H32, 3004-H34, 3004-H36, 3004-H38: Sheet-metal work, storage tanks.

3005- 3005-H12, 3005-H14, 3005-H16, 3005-H18, 3005-H25: Rsidential siding, mobil homes, rain-carrying goods, sheet-metal work.

4032-T6: Pistons.

4043: Welding electrode.

5005- 5005-H12, 5005-H14, 5005-H16, 5005-H18, 5005-H32, 5005-H34, 5005-H36, and 5005-H38: Appliances, utensils, architectural, electrical conductors.

5050- 5050-H32, 5050-H34, 5050-H36, 5050-H38: Builder's hardware, refrigerator trim, coiled tubes.

5052- 5052-H32, 5052-H34, 5052-H36, and 5052-H38: 5052-H32 contains 2.5% magnesium. It is one of the highest strength alloys of the non-heat treatable grades. 5052-H32 temper has very good corrosion resistance to seawater and marine and industrial atmosphere. 5052-H32 is optimal for sheet metal work because of its ability to allow for a tight radius while bending. It also has very good weldability and good cold formability. Common uses for this formable alloy include the sheet metal works of electrical enclosures, electronic chassis, marine parts, home appliances, food equipment, fuel tanks, storm shutters, refrigerators, aircraft tubes, hydrolic tubes, hardware signs and fences. 5052 aluminum alloys are subject to a mixed ductility fracture and brittle fracture.

5056- 5056-H111, 5056-H12, 5056-H14, 5056-H16, 5056-H18, 5056-H192, 5056-H32, 5056-H34, 5056-H38, and 5056-H392: Cable sheathing, rivets for magnesium, screen wire, zippers.

5083- 5083-H11, 5083-H116, 5083-H321, 5083-H323, and 5083-H343: Unfired, welded pressure vessels, marine, auto aircraft cryogenics, TV towers, drilling rigs, transportation equipment, missile components.

5086- 5086-H111, 5086-H116, 5086-H32, 5086-H34, 5086-H36, and 5086-H38: Welded stuctures, storage tanks, pressure vessels, salt-water service.

5154- 5154-H32, 5154-H34, 5154-H36, and 5154-H38: Welded stuctures, storage tanks, pressure vessels, salt-water service.

5182- 51828-H19: Automobile body sheet, can ends.

5252-H24 5252-H25, 5252-H28: Automotive and appliance trim.

5254- 5254-H32, 5254-H34, 5254-H36, and 5254-H38: Hydrogen peroxide and chemical storage vessels.

5256- 5256-H111, 5256-H115, 5256-H32, 5256-H323, and 5256-H343: High-strength welded strutures, storage tanks, pressure vessels, marine applications.

5652- 5652-H32, 5652-H34, 5652-H36, and 5652-H38: Hydrogen peroxide and chemical storage vessels.

5657- 5657-H241, 5657-H25, 5657-H26, and 5657-H28: Anodized auto and appliance trim.


WHAT IS 6000 SERIES ALUMINUM USED FOR?


6005-T5: Heavy-duty structures requiring good corrosion resistance applications, truck and marine, railroad cars, furniture, pipelines.

6009-T4: Automobile body sheet.

6010-T4: Automobile body sheet.

6042: Alloy 6042 is a new aluminium alloy developed for improved machinability and reduced lead levels to comply with current RoHS and ELV recycling requirements. It offers improved machinability characteristics compared to 6061 and 6082. Alloy 6042 is typically used in electrical connectors, brake components, pneumatic and hydraulic manifolds and valve blocks, air conditioning components, and hardware and fasteners.


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6061-: 6061-T4, 6061-T451, 6061-T4510, 6061-T4511, 6061-T6, 6061-T651, 6061-T652, 6061-T6510, and 6061-T6511: 6061 is commonly used for structural components, marine fittings and hardware, truck and marine components, railroad cars, furniture, pipelines, screw machine parts, frames, brackets, jigs, fixtures, base plates, machine parts, couplings, hydraulic valve bodies, valves and valves parts, fasteners, hardware, electrical fittings and connectors, hinge pins, magneto parts, brake pistons, hydraulic pistons, appliance fittings, bike frames, etc. Heavy-duty structures requiring good strength-to-weight ration with good corrosion resistance applications. 6061 is easily cold worked and formed in the annealed condition. 6061 is the most versatile of the heat-treatable aluminum alloys, it can be fabricated by most of the commonly used techniques and it has good workability in the annealed condition. Cutting, stamping, bending, spinning, deep drawing, drilling, tapping, etc. are all readily accomplished using standard methods. 6061 aluminum alloys are subject to a mixed ductility fracture and brittle fracture.

6063-T1: 6063-T4, 6063-T5, 6063-T52, 6063-T4511, 6063-T6, 6063-T83, 6063-T831, and 6063-T832: 6063 is the most common alloy used for aluminium extrusion. It allows complex shapes to be formed with very smooth surfaces fit for anodizing and so is popular for visible architectural applications such as window frames, door frames, roofs, and sign frames, pipe railing, furniture, architectural fabrication and sign frames.

6066-: 6066-T4, 6066-T4510, 6066-T5, 6066-T52, 6066-T6, 6066-T6510, and 6066-T6511: Forgings and extrusions for welded structure.

6070-T4: 6070-T451, and 6070-T6: Heavy-duty welded structure, pipe lines.
T6511: Forgings and extrusions for welded structure.

6082: Alloy 6082 offers similar physical characteristics to the 6061 aluminium alloy. It offers good finishing characteristics and responds well to anodizing. The alloy also offers good welding and brazing capabilities, corrosion resistance, formability and machinability. Alloy 6082 is a good choice for structural applications, including rod, bar, tube and profiles that can be machined into similar components as 6061.

6101-T6: 6101-T61, 6101-T63, and 6101-T64: High-strength bus conductors.

6151-T6: 6151-T652: Moderate-strength, intricate forgings for machine and auto parts.

6201-T81: High-strength electric conductor wire.

6262-T6: 6262-T651, 6262-T6510, 6262-T6511, and 6262-T9: Screw machine products. Alloy 6262 is the alloy of choice for improved machinability in the 6XXX series, however 6262 does not comply with current RoHS and ELV requirements due to its lead content. It was originally developed specifically for machining applications, including screw machine and CNC machine products. Alloy 6262 offers good corrosion resistance, good finishing characteristics and responds well to all common anodizing methods. Typical applications include connectors and fasteners, hydraulic valve blocks, and electrical and cable components where RoHS or ELV requirements do not apply.

6351-T5: 6351-T6: Heavy-duty structures requiring good corrosion resistance, truck and tractor extrusions.

6463-T1: 6463-T5, and 6463-T6: Extruded architectural and rim sections.


WHAT IS 7000 SERIES ALUMINUM USED FOR?


7005-T53: 7005-T63: Heavy-duty structures requiring good corrosion resistance, truck, trailer and dump bodies.

7049-T73: 7049-T7351, 7049-T7352, 7049-T76, and 7049-T7651: Aircraft and other structures.

7050-T736: 7050-T73651, 7050-T73652, 7050-T76, and 7050-T761: Aircraft and other structures.

7072-: Fin stock, cladding alloy.

7075-: 7075-T6, 7075-T651, 7075-T6510, 7075-T6511, 7075-T73, and 7075-T7351: Aircraft and other structures. 7075 is the most common of the 7000 series grades. It is an extremely high strength alloy; the strongest of all commercial grades of aluminium. In fact, grade 7075 aluminium is stronger than many types of mild steel.

7175-T736: 7175-T73652: Aircraft and other structures, forgings.

7178-: 7178-T6, 7178-T651, and 7178-T6511: Aircraft and other structures.

7475-T6: 7475-T651, 7475-T73, 7475-T7351, 7475-T7352, 7475-T76, and 7475-T7651: Aircraft and other structures.

Kovar: Developing subjects please check back later


TEMPER DESIGNATED FOR WROUGHT ALUMINUM


F – As fabricated. Applies to product of shaping processes in which no special control over thermal conditions or strain hardening is employed.

H – Strain-hardened (wrought aluminum only). Applies to products which have their strength increased by strain-hardenening, with or without suplementary thermal treatments to produce some reduction in strength.

H1 – Strain-hardened only. Applies to products which are strain-hardenened to obtain the desired strength without suplementary thermal treatments.

H111 – Applies to products which are strain-hardenened less than the amount required for a controlled H11 temper.

H112 – Applies to products which acquire some temper from shaping processes not having special control over the amount of train-hardenening or thermal treatment, but for which there are mechanical property limits.


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H2 – Strain-hardened and partially annealed. Applies to products which are strain-hardened more than the desired final amount, and then reduced in strength to the desired level by partial annealing. For alloys that age-soften at room temperature, the H2 tempers have the same minumum tensile strength as the corresponding H1 tempers and slightly higher elongation. The number following this designation indicates the degree of strain-hardening remaining after the product has been partially annealed.

H3 – Strain-hardened and stabilized. Applies to products which are strain-hardened and whose mechanical properties are stabilized by a low temperature thermal treatment which results in slightly lowered tensile strength and improved ductility. This designation is applicable only to those alloys in which, unless stabilized, gradually age-soften at room temperature. The number following this designation indicates the degree of strain-hardening before the stabilization treatment.

H311 – Applies to products which are strain-hardened less than the amount required for a controlled H31 temper.

H321 – Applies to products which are strain-hardened less than the amount required for a controlled H32 temper.

H323/H343 – Applies to products which are specially fabricated to have acceptable resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

O – Applies to wrought products which are annealed to obtain the lowest strength temper, and to cast products which are annealed to improve ductility and dimensional stability.

T – Thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F, O or H. Applies to products which are thermally treated, with or without suplementary strain-hardening, to produce stable tempers.

T1 – Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limts.

T2 – Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, cold worked, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limts.

T3 – Solution heatreated, cold worked, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength after solution heat-treatment, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limts.

T4 – Solution heatreated, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat-treatment, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may no be recognized in mechanical property limts. T42 indicates material is solution heat-treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat-treatment, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition.

T5 – Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged. Applies to products which are not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limts.

T51 – Stress relieved by streching. Applies to products when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat-treatment or cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. Applies directly to plate and rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, which receive no further straightening after sketching. Applies to extruded rod, bar, shapes, tubing, and to drawn tubing when designated as folows —» T510 - Products that receives no further straightening after sketching. —» T51 - Products that may receive minor straightening after sketchiing to comply with standard tolerances.

T52 – Stress relieved by compressing. Applies to products which are stress-relieved by compressing after solution heat-treatment or cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process to produce a permanent set of 1% to 5%.

T54 – Stress relieved by combined stretching and compressing. Applies to die forgings which are stress-relieved by resticking cold in the finish die

T6 – Solution heat-treated and then artificially aged. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat treatment, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not berecognized in mechanical property limits. —» T62 indicates material is solution heat-treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment, and artificially aged.

T7 – Solution heat-treated and stablized. Applies to products which are stabilized after solution heat treatment to carry them beyond the point of maximum strength to provide control of some special characteristic.

T8 – Solution heat-treated, cold worked and artificially aged. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits.

T9 – Solution heat-treated, artificially aged and cold worked. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength.

T9 – Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, cold worked and artificially aged. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening isrecognized in mechanical property limits.

W – Solution heat-treated. An unstable temper applicable only to alloys which apontaneously age at room temperature after solution heat-treatment.


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ELEMENT INFORMATION | PROPERTIES and USES


Atomic number: 13. Aluminum (Al), also spelled aluminium, chemical element, a lightweight silvery white metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel, doesn't rust, and recyclable. Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in Earth's crust and the most widely used nonferrous metal. Aluminum originates from bauxite, and cryolite. These minerals are aluminium silicates an ore typically found in the topsoil of various tropical and subtropical regions. Once mined, aluminum within the bauxite ore is chemically extracted into alumina, an aluminum oxide compound, through the Bayer process.

* Silicate (any chemical compound that contains silicon and oxygen/any mineral that contains silica, khoáng chất chứa silic dioxyt). A salt in which the anion contains both silicon and oxygen, especially one of the anion [SiO 4−ₓ] ₙ, where 0 ≤ x ‹ 2. The family includes orthosilicate SiO⁴⁻ ₄, metasilicate SiO²⁻ ₃, and pyrosilicate Si ₂O⁶⁻ ₇.

The Bayer process and the Hall–Héroult process. Aluminum manufacture is accomplished in two phases: the Bayer process of refining the bauxite ore to obtain aluminum oxide (tinh chế quặng bôxit để thu được nhôm oxit), and the Hall-Heroult process of smelting the aluminum oxide to release pure aluminum. The Hall's process is the industrial process that is involves the smelting of aluminium. The Bayer process is the metal extraction process of aluminium in which the aluminium is refined from bauxite ore. The ore is grounded and digested in caustic solution to obtain aluminium.

In 1825, Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to produce a small amounts of aluminum. Two years later, Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist, developed a different way to obtain aluminum. By 1845, he was able to produce samples large enough to determine some of aluminum's basic properties. Wöhler's method was improved in 1854 by Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, a French chemist. Deville's process allowed for the commercial production of aluminum.

The invention in the 1880s greatly increased the availability of aluminum. The first was the invention of a new process for obtaining aluminum from aluminum oxide. Charles Martin Hall, an American chemist, and Paul L. T. Héroult, a French chemist, each invented this process independently in 1886. The second was the invention of a new process that could cheaply obtain aluminum oxide from bauxite. Bauxite is an ore that contains a large amount of aluminum hydroxide (Al2O3·3H2O), along with other compounds. Karl Joseph Bayer, an Austrian chemist, developed this process in 1888. The Hall-Héroult and Bayer processes are still used today to produce nearly all of the world's aluminum.
Periodic Table od Elements

Which aluminum is best for machining? Allloy 3003, 5052, 6061, and 6063. Cast, wrought, strain hardenable, and heat treatable are the four major classifications of aluminum alloys.

Cast alloys containing copper, magnesium, or zinc as the principal alloying elements impose few machining problems. Tools with small rake angles can normally be used with little danger of burring the part or of developing buildup on the cutting edges of tools. Alloys having silicon as the major alloying element require tools with larger rake angles, and they are more economically machined at lower speeds and feeds.

Wrought alloys. Most wrought aluminum alloys have excellent machining characteristics; several are well suited to multiple-operation machining. A thorough understanding of tool designs and machining practices is essential for full utilization of the free-machining qualities of aluminum alloys.

Strain-hardenable alloys contain no alloying elements that would render them hardenable by solution heat treatment and precipitation, but they can be strengthened to some extent by cold work. In machining, a continuous chip is formed that must be directed away from the workpiece by tools with generous side and back rake angles, thus preventing scratching of the finished surface with the work-hardened chips. These alloys machine easily, although tool pressures are high as a result of high friction. To obtain good surface finish, sharp tools are mandatory because the alloys are gummy. Machinability is improved by cold working; alloys in the full-hard temper are easier to machine to a good finish than those in the annealed condition.

Heat-treatable alloys. Most of the alloys of this group contain fairly high percentages of alloying elements such as copper, silicon, magnesium, and zinc. They can be machined to a good finish with or without cutting fluid, but a cutting fluid is recommended for most operations. Turnings usually occur as long, continuous curls, except for the free-machining alloys, which contain chip-breaking constituents. Heattreatable alloys are more machinable in the heat-treated tempers than in the softer as fabricated or annealed solution.

Which aluminum is best for bending? Allloy 3003, 5052, 5083, 6061, and 6082. Aluminum alloy 6061 t6 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 42,000 psi and yield strength of at least 35,000 psi. This is compared to the 6063 t6 ultimate tensile strength of at least 28,000 psi and yield strength of 23,000 psi.

Isotropic Materials are characterized by two elastic parameters. Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio. It's defined as if its mechanical and thermal properties are the same (having identical values of a property) in all directions. Glass and metals are examples of isotropic materials.

Anisotropic Materials are materials whose properties are directionally dependent. Anisotropic material's properties such as Young's Modulus, change with direction along the object.

  • Density of a material is defined as material mass per unit volume and designated by the symbol ρ (rho). The SI unit of density ((vật lý) tương quan giữa trọng lượng và khối lượng; tỷ trọng) is kg / m3 and U.S. customary unit of density is lb/ft3. Density is an important characteristic property of a material and varies with temperature and pressure.
  • Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom by another atom, an ion, or a molecule.
  • Poisson's ratio is a measure of the Poisson effect, that describes the expansion of a material in directions perpendicular to the direction of compression. The ratio (tỷ số, tỷ lệ) is named after the French mathematician and physicist Siméon Poisson. Conversely, if the material is stretched rather than compressed, it usually tends to contract in the directions transverse to the direction of stretching. It is a common observation when a rubber band is stretched, it becomes noticeably thinner. In certain rare cases, a material will actually shrink in the transverse direction when compressed (or expand when stretched) which will yield a negative value of the Poisson ratio.
  • Mechanical Damping/Damping Ratio: Damping (sự giảm âm, sự giảm xóc, sự chống rung) an influence within or upon an oscillatory (dao động) system that has the effect of reducing, restricting or preventing its oscillations. In physical systems, damping is produced by processes that dissipate the energy stored in the oscillation. The damping ratio is a dimensionless measure describing how oscillations in a system decay after a disturbance. Many systems exhibit oscillatory behavior when they are disturbed from their position of static equilibrium. A mass suspended from a spring, for example, might, if pulled and released, bounce up and down. On each bounce, the system tends to return to its equilibrium position, but overshoots it. Sometimes losses (e.g. frictional, gravitational) damp the system and can cause the oscillations to gradually decay in amplitude towards zero or attenuate. The damping ratio is a measure describing how rapidly the oscillations decay from one bounce to the next.
  • Young's Modulus is a mechanical property that measures the stiffness of a solid material. It defines the relationship between stress (force per unit area) and strain (proportional deformation) in a material in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial (having or relating to a single axis) deformation. A solid material will undergo elastic deformation when a small load is applied to it in compression or extension. Elastic deformation is reversible (the material returns to its original shape after the load is removed). Young's modulus is not always the same in all orientations of a material. Most metals and ceramics, along with many other materials, are isotropic, and their mechanical properties are the same in all orientations. However, metals and ceramics can be treated with certain impurities, and metals can be mechanically worked to make their grain structures directional. These materials then become anisotropic, and Young's modulus (tính chất cứng (không dễ uốn, gấp, thay đổi hình dáng..)) will change depending on the direction of the force vector[3]. Anisotropy can be seen in many composites as well. For example, carbon fiber has a much higher Young's modulus (is much stiffer) when force is loaded parallel to the fibers (along the grain). Other such materials include wood and reinforced concrete. Engineers can use this directional phenomenon to their advantage in creating structures.
  • More material properties...developing subjects please check back later

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