AUTODESK AUTO CAD – SETTING UP A DRAWING
Setting up a Simple Drawing: To make it easier to plot a drawing from model space —» File —» New —» select acad.dwt (acad) or acadiso.dwt or caddlt.dwt —» Open —» type LIMITS (define your working area) —» Enter —» <0.0000,0.0000> (lower left corner) —» Enter —» 15,10 (B-size drawing working area) —» Enter —» right-click Grid On/Off icon (bottom right corner) —» Grid Setting —» Drafting Settings —» change the values in the dialog box so it looks like this —» OK —» Ctrl + S (to save) —» save it to a folder (.dwg is automatically add).
Drawing Setup: The trickier aspects of using AutoCad. Quick setup really becomes apparent at plotting (printing). Decisions to make about the new drawing: What system of measurement – Metric / Imperial —» What drawing units will be use? —» At what scale – or scales – will you print it? —» What size paper does it need to fit?
Or find an existing drawing that was set up for the drawing scale and paper size, make a copy of that DWG file, erase the objects, and start drawing. With this approach, any setup mistakes in that drawing will be inherited.
Choosing the Units: System of measure includes —»
Drawing Scale v.s. Drawing Scale Factor: Drawing scale is the traditional way of describing a scale. Drawing scales are expressed with an equal sign or colon; for example, 1/8" (paper measurement) = (corresponds to) 1'-0" (real-world measurement). In other worlds, the imperial drawing scale 1/8" = 1'-0" means that 1/8" on the plotted drawing corresponds to 1'-0" in the CAD drawing and in the real-world. A metric drawing scale is usually expressed without units, as a simple ratio, 1:20 means 1 unnit on the plotted drawing corresponds to 20 units in the real-world. In architectural and engineering drawings, the numbers usually refer to millimeters. Drawing scale factor is a single number that represents a multiplier, such as 96, 20, or 0.5. The drawing scale factor for a drawing is the conversion factor between a measurement on the plot and a measurement in the real world. Choose a drawing scale —» setup drawing scale factor.
Drawing Sheet Sizes: Most industries use a small range of standard sheet sizes. Three commons sets of sizes are:
Drawing Area: After select a sheet size and drawing scale factor, calculating the available drawing area is easy. Multiply sheet's dimensions by the drawing scale factor of 96 (drawing scale factor). Ex: 1/8" = 1'0" — 17 x 96 = 1,632" and 11 x 96 = 1,056" or 136' x 88'. Two reasons why drawing area needed...
To prepare your drawing for printing (8 1/2" x 11"/210 mm x 297 mm), switch to paper space. Here you can set up different layouts with title blocks and notes; and on each layout, you create layout viewports that display different views of model space. In the layout viewports, you scale the model space views relative to paper space. One unit in paper space represents the actual distance on a sheet of paper, either in millimeters or inches, depending on how you configure your page setup.
D R A W I N G S H E E T S — S I Z E S & S E T T I N G
Template Drawing Sheet Parameters.
|D-size (34" x 22")
Drawing Limits / Area
|C-size (22" x 17")
Drawing Limits / Area
|B-size (17" x 11")
Drawing Limits & Area
|A-size (11" x 8.5")
Drawing Limits & Area
|1:1||34, 22 / 32 x 20||22, 17 / 20 x 15||17, 11 / 15 x 10||11, 8.5 / 9 x 7|
|1:2||68, 44||44, 34||34, 22||22, 17|
|1:4||136, 88||88, 68||68,44||44, 34|
|1:8||272, 176||176, 136||136, 88||88, 68|
|1" = 1'-0"||408, 264||264, 204||204, 132||132, 102|
|3/4" = 1'-0"||544, 352||352, 272||272, 176||176, 136|
|1/2" = 1'-0"||816, 528||528, 408||408, 264||264, 204|
|3/8" = 1'-0"||1088, 704||704, 544||544, 352||352, 272|
|1/4" = 1'-0"||1632, 1056||1056, 816||816, 528||528, 408|
|3/16" = 1'-0"||2176, 1408||1408, 1088||1088, 704||704, 544|
|1/8" = 1'-0"||3264, 2112||2112, 1632||1632, 1056||1056, 816|
|3/32" = 1'-0"||4352, 2816||2816, 2176||2176, 1408||1408, 1088|
|1/16" = 1'-0"||6528, 4224||4224, 3264||3264, 2112||2112, 1632|
Template Drawing Scale Parameters.
|Drawing Scale Factor
|Drawing Scale Factor
|Inversion Scale of Border and Parts
|1:1||1||.5||1 = 1|
|1:2||2||1||1 = 2|
|1:4||4||2||1 = 4|
|1:8||8||4||1 = 8|
|1" = 1'-0"||12||6||1 = 12 / Details|
|3/4" = 1'-0"||16||8||1 = 16|
|1/2" = 1'-0"||24||12||1 = 24 / Small building planes|
|3/8" = 1'-0"||32||16||1 = 32|
|1/4" = 1'-0"||48||24||1 = 48 / House planes|
|3/16" = 1'-0"||64||32||1 = 64|
|1/8" = 1'-0"||96||48||1 = 96 / Med-size building plans|
|3/32" = 1'-0"||128||64||1 = 128|
|1/16" = 1'-0"||192||96||1 = 192 / Lrg Building plans|
S E T T I N G U P T E X T S T Y L E S
In AutoCad, a text style consists of a combination of a style name, a text font, a height, a width factor, an oblique angle, and a few other mostly static settings.
Determining the Text and Drawing Scales: When the text you're adding does not specifically label the portion of your design drawn at full size, a feature called layouts makes if possible to set the height of text in the same way at which it will be printed.
A scale of 1/4" = 1'0" (1:50) has a true ration of 1:48 (1:50) and a scale factor of 48 (50), see table Standard scales and their corresponding ratios.
Defining a Text Style for View Titles: Create a new layer name A-ANNO-TEXT (yellow color and make it current) —»
C R E A T I N G a B O R D E R and T I T L E B L O C K
Because many people have access to 11" x 17" (297 mm x 420 mm) format printer, we'll use that sheet size. How big an area will fit on an 11" x 17" (A3, or 297 mm x 420 mm) sheet at 1/4" = 1'0" (1:50) scale. The answer is quite simple. Every inch (millimeter) on the sheet represents 48" (50 mm) in the drawing (because 12" divided by 1/4" is 48", and 50 mm divided by 1 is 50 mm). Therefore, you multiply each dimension of the sheet in inches (millimeters) by 48 (50). For this sheet, you multiply 11" x 48" (297 mm x 50) to get 528" (14,850 m m) or 45'4". You multiply 17" x 48 (420 mm x 50) to get 816" (21,000 mm), or 68' (21 meters). So the sheet repreents a rectangle with dimensions of approximately 528" x 816" (14,850 mm x 21,000 mm) at a scale of 1/4" = 1'0", which is usually called quarter-inch scale.
Most printers and plotters are not full-bleed devices, you'll need to factor in room for a margin around the outer edge of the sheet.
Drawing the Border: The border of the drawing will be set in from the edge of the sheet. Open acad-lamdscape.dwt —» Create a new layer name A-ANNO-TTLB (green color and make it current) —» Layer Properties —» RMB —» New Layer (Name=A-ANNO-TTLB) —» Color=Green —» RMB —» Set current —» Close —»
Title Block: The most efficient way of creating a title block is as a separate DWG file, drawn at its normal plotted size (for example, 17 inches long by 11 inches high for a B-size title block, or 841 mm long by 594 mm high for an ISO A1-size. Then insert or xref the title block drawing into each sheet drawing.
Constructing a Title Block: We'll use the RECTANG and PLINE commands to draw the various lines that make up the title block, and then we'll fill in the text. Open acad-lamdscape.dwt —»
Putting Text in the Title Block: The title block has several boxes that will each contain different pieces of information and more, depending on the complexity of the job —»
L A Y O U T W I Z A R D — T H E P R O C E S S O F C R E A T I N G A N E W L A Y O U T
Paper Space: Paper space is a sheet layout environment where you can specify the size of your sheet, add a title block, display multiple views of your model, and create dimensions and notes for your drawing. You can use multiple layouts to show and provide details on the various components of your model. You can vary the scale of the model view to show small details which are part of a bigger three-dimensional model, on standard-sized drawing sheets.
Model space: Aaccessible from the Model tab and paper space is accessible from the layout tabs. The two spaces are accessible near the left bottom corner of the drawing area: the Model tab and Layout1 and Layout2 tabs. You can add new layouts or copy existing layouts. You can create layouts using the Create Layout wizard or DesignCenter. Each layout can contain different page setup settings. To avoid confusion when transmitting and publishing drawings, it is usually recommended that you create only one named layout for each drawing.
On each layout, you can create as many layout viewports as you like. Each layout viewport is like a picture frame into model space, containing a view that displays the model at the scale and orientation that you specify. You can create a single layout viewport that fits the entire layout or create multiple layout viewports. Once you create a viewport, you can change its size, properties, and also scale and move it as needed. You can also specify which layers are visible in each layout viewport.
Template: A template is simply a drawing whose name ends in the letters DWT, which you use as the starting point for another drawing. When you create a new drawing from a template, AutoCAD makes a copy of the template file and opens the copy in a new drawing editor window. The first time you save the file, you’re prompted for a new filename to save to; the original template file stays unchanged. When you create a layout, you can choose to apply the information from an existing template. A layout template is a layout imported from a DWG or DWT file. AutoCad has sample layout templates acadiso.dwt (for metric system) , acad.dwt (imperial system) to use when you design a new layout environment. AutoCad templates are probably not setup for the scales to your design which you will need to specify scale-dependent setup information.
Creating Drawing from a Template Drawing: Ctrl + N or QNEW (New) —» select acad —» Open —» Ctrl + S (Save) —» B-size-imp —» Save —» Model tab —»
When you create a layout based on a template, the page setup and paper space objects, including any viewport objects, are used in the new layout. No model space objects are imported. The layout templates are identified with a .dwt file extension. However, a layout template or layout from any drawing or drawing template can be imported into the current drawing.
Save a Layout Template: Any drawing can be saved as a drawing template (DWT file), including all of the objects and layout settings. You can save a layout to a new DWT file by choosing the Save As option of the LAYOUT command. The template file is saved in the drawing template file folder as defined in the Files tab (Options dialog box). The layout template has a .dwt or .dwg extension like a drawing template or drawing file, but it contains little information not essential to the layout.
When you create a new layout template, any named items, such as blocks, layers, and dimension styles, that are used in the layout are saved with the template. These definition table items are imported as part of the layout settings if you import this template into a new layout. It is recommended that you use the Save As option of the LAYOUT command to create a new layout template. When you use the Save As option, unused definition table items are not saved with the file; they are not added to the new layout into which you import the template.
If you insert a layout from a drawing or template that was not created using the Save As option of the LAYOUT command, definition table items that are used in the drawing but not in the layout are inserted with the layout. To eliminate unnecessary definition table items, use the PURGE command.
To Save a Layout Template: Open a Drawing File —» Save As (Ctrl+Shift+S) —» File name=Levels Control MMC as a drawing file (.dwg) —» Save As (Ctrl+Shift+S) —» Files of type: select Drawing Template File (*.dwt) —» File name=A-Hor-Metric —» Save —» Description=A size-Horizontal-Metric —» Measurement=select Metric —» New Layer Notification=Save all layers as unreconciled —» OK.